One of the simplest and easy to simulate examples of this is colorblindness. In this video, the small image is full-spectrum vision, while the large image is deficient. A friend of mine was recently diagnosed with both deuteranopia and protanopia, meaning he can see neither red nor green. Can you imagine seeing in only blue, yellow, and grey?
What's interesting is that we can simulate the deficiency for those of us who can see in full spectrum, but you can't simulate full color vision for the colorblind. Here's a great website with more information about color blindness: Colblindor
This has me thinking a lot about my own tendency to rely on color in my work. I really need to push the value factor, if I'm going to make this enjoyable for colorblind people.